Church Bell Economics

Irritated that church bells had been awakening them before 7 a.m., in 1879 a group of New Yorkers complained to the city Board of Health. They said the chimes violated Section 177 of the Sanitary Code and  endangered their health.…

Butter, Health Care and the Spread of Baumol’s Disease

When butter makers had Baumol’s Disease, for centuries, there was no cure. From the 1700s to 1940, making butter required some cream, a churn and usually a woman with lots of time and energy to crank or plunge a shaft.…