Words cannot describe the 2300 pages of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. In a way, because it says so much, it tells us very little. Still though, after looking at the bill and several news summaries, I wanted to share some main ideas.
At first, “risk” and “protection” were the two words that came to mind. Risk: Lawmakers want to manage the impact of the risks taken by financial institutions. Protection: Lawmakers hope to protect consumers from making unwise financial decisions.
Then, I discovered a second approach that made sense to me at WSJ.com where they described the basics of the bill through four categories:
1) Government: Its powers will grow in order to preserve financial stability. Starting with the Federal Reserve, countless government regulatory agencies will be transformed.
2) Banks: Financial firms will experience new restrictions on trading different types of complex securities.
3) Consumers: A new bureau to protect consumers will be established. Its responsibilities will impact a plethora of financial activities.
4) Investors: Different investing groups such as hedge funds, people who give investment advice, insurance companies, and those who create securities packages will have new constraints.
Essentially then we have four groups responding to a Congress that hopes to control financial risk and expand financial protection. With 2300 pages of text, mathematically, the ways in which the four groups can respond and then interact create countless permutations.
The Economic Lesson
Passed in 1932 and 1933, the Glass-Steagall Act separated investment and commercial banking, changed the structure of the Federal Reserve, and created the FDIC. Although it was formally repealed in 1999, regulators permitted financial institutions to violate its spirit beforehand. When I read the act, I was surprised to see language that was as tough to follow as the current financial reform bill. However, as 34 pages of legislation, it had fewer variables and appeared to cover many of the necessary regulatory details.